The first mass produced standard version of the AC electric locomotive.
JNR launched a study of AC-Electrification during 1953, and on the 10th of August 1955, an AC 20kV 50Hz electrification test section was laid between Rikuzen-Ochiai and Kumagane on the Senzan line.
Two test AC electric locomotives were produced, they were Class ED44 at the Hitachi works and Class ED45 at the Mitsubishi works.
After the testing with these locomotives on the Senzan line, first the AC electric production model eighteen Class ED70 was produced. ED70 was produced on the Class ED45 basis. They were deployed on the Japan's first business AC electrified section between Tamura and Tsuruga on the Hokuriku line during October 1957.
Thereafter, AC electric engines increased with AC-electrification section development.
The Class ED71 saw service between Kuroiso and Shirakawa on the Tohoku line during electrification in 1959, and the Class ED72 was between Moji-ko and Kurume on the Kagoshima line electrification during 1961.
When Jyoban line was AC electrified to the Taira on the 1st of May 1963, a versatile standard model of AC electric was designed for integration for AC electric locomotives. Two different performance prototype AC electric engines were manufactured by Hitachi and Mitsubishi during December 1963, and were named Class ED75.
ED75s were increased in production with development of the Jyoban and Tohoku line electrification. These ED75s were deployed to the Katsuta, Sendai and Fukushima depots, they exceeded 100 engines during October 1966.
When all of the Tohoku line electrification was completed in 1968, ED75s were newly deployed to the Morioka and Aomori depots also.
During October 1965, ten AC 60Hz model ED75s (No.301-310) were produced for an increase of the renewed Class ED73 when Kagoshima line with Kumamoto electrification in Kyushu came about.
During 1966, when Hokkaido's first electrified section was opened, Hokkaido's Cold-Region test model of the ED75 (No.501) was produced. ED75-501 was tested in the Fukushima area on the Tohoku line, and was later moved to Hokkaido and was tested between Teine and Zenibako on the test section of the Hakodate line. Finally, the ED75-500 series was manufactured in only one engine design. Later ED75-501 was deployed to the Iwamizawa depot, and was active between Otaru and Asahikawa on the Hakodate line.
During 1968-1976, thirty-nine High-Speed model ED75s (No.1001-1039) saw increased production and went to the Tohoku line.
During October 1971, when Japan Sea's coastal Uetsu and Ou lines electrification was opened, thirty-four Improved-Brine-Damage and Cold-Resistant model ED75s (No.701-734) were produced. Later, the ED75-700 series was manufactured until 1976, with a final total of 91 (No.701-791) engines.
Since the first ED75 was manufactured during 1963, a total of 302 engines were produced until 1976. ED75 was widely used as a standard AC electric locomotive, it was a used as a limited express, freight train etc....
ED75s operation decreased after the year of 1980, because of the increase of AC/DC engines, as well as, the decrease of night and freight trains, local train Electric Railcar-ize ....etc
There were many surplus ED75s during the year of privatization of the JNR during 1987. However, a few ED75s were still active on part of the Tohoku and Ou line's freight service during 2009. A few ED75s survived the process of replacement for the heir Class EH500 etc.
Preserved engine ED75-No.775 (1975 - 2007)
The ED75 No.775 was manufactured by Toshiba Co., and was completed on the 16th of October 1975.
After it's conception, the ED75-775 was deployed to the Akita depot, and was active on the Uetsu and Ou lines.
She was retired and exhibited in a museum during May 2007.
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